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All copper-alloy unless otherwise stated. All numbers relate to fig. 6.

TYPE IK - square or rectangular single loop (no's 68-74). Date range 1275-1500AD+
There are many buckles in this form that are of iron. Most of them would be used on harness and are Medieval and post-Medieval in date. Examples in copper-alloy are not quite so common, the most frequently found being no's 68 and 69. Both would have had a revolving cylinder on the loop. Number 68 has the characteristic 'spurs' on each side of the loop whilst number 69 is plain and slightly more rectangular. Number 70 is from a context of 1375-1500AD. Number 71 of square form is from the 14thc. Number 72 has a square extension on the loop against which the tongue rests and is from the 14th-15thc. Number 73 has decorative knops on the loop and small 'stops' on the hinge-bar. Number 74 has incised decoration on the loop and is a late example in this group.

TYPE IL - circular single loop cast in one with the plate (no's 75-76). Date range 1350-1400AD.
These decorative buckles are rarely found. Number 75 has a loop reminiscent of some Medieval brooches, and the plate also has elaborate cast ornament. There is a hole in the casting for retaining the tongue. Number 76 has a bar for the tongue and has the gothic letters 'IHC' on the plate.

TYPE IM - 'lyre' shape single loop cast in one with plate (no's 77-78). Date range 1390-1420AD.
These are members of a well-known and distinctive group of buckles and strap-ends. Although they are not so commonly found they are well-represented on monumental brasses and this suggests use by the upper classes. Of course this also gives us a useful dating tool and allows for more accurate dating than many other types. Number 77 is a buckle with a pierced trefoil terminal and decorative side scrolls. The buckle was attached to the strap via the box-like plate and secured by rivets. Number 78 is a strap-end chape with a leaf terminal and internal trefoil on the loop that has been plated with an amalgam of 70% tin and 30% silver. The internal trefoil would not necessarily interfere with the passage of a strap or belt as it was inserted from the side. From monumental brasses this can be seen to be a popular method of fastening the belt in the later Medieval period and this fashion is responsible for some buckles and chapes reaching much larger proportions than in previous times. Another known type has the familiar standing figure of St. Christopher leaning on a staff and bearing Christ on his shoulders as a central feature of the loop.

TYPE IN - 'kidney' shape single loop (no's 79-82). Date range 1450-1500AD+
These are a late Medieval type. Numbers 79 and 80 have very wide loops and short tongues. Number 80 has a separate iron hinge-pin for the tongue and plate and is therefore an early example of this form of construction. Buckle loops of this type are usually cast but they are also known to be formed of sheet metal.

The buckles of TYPE II are an intermediate style between the single loop buckles of TYPE IA - IN and the true double loop buckles of TYPE IIIA - IIIC.

TYPE IIA - separate strap and tongue bars (no's 83-88). Date range 1375-1500AD.
I have yet to see an example of a Type IIA buckle with a plate attached and these must have had the strap folded directly over the bar and riveted through. Some of these may have been used for hanging the sword and dagger belt. Two examples were found during excavations at Guildford Priory which may suggest that they were not used exclusively for that purpose. The oval loops are the most frequently found with number 84 being the most common.

TYPE IIB - central hinge-bar with asymmetric double loop (no's 89-94). Date range 1350-1500AD+
Most of this group appear to be from the later Medieval period. Numbers 89-91 are made of iron. Number 92 has one extended loop which is engraved. Number 93 is of similar type and is dated to 1450-1500AD. Number 94 is a very unusual but not uncommon type of 'locking' buckle which is invariably found with the locking arm broken.

The buckles of TYPE III are the true double loops with the strap or buckle-plate and the tongue attached to the same central bar. The loops are usually symmetrical and they only come into common use during the 15thc. Some rarer examples may however date as early as c1350AD.

TYPE IIIA - square or rectangular double loop (no's 95-97). Date range 1400-1500AD+
Buckles of this form do not appear to be so commonly found. Number 95 has circles punched around the loop (with double loops the term 'frame' may also be used). Number 96 of a more decorative outline has engraved lines on the frame whilst number 97 has two straight sides and the two ends are of baluster shape.

TYPE IIIB - circular double loop (no's 98-103). Date range 1370-1500AD.
These buckles of small to large module are reasonably common on Medieval sites - number 101 being the type most frequently found. Numbers 98-99 and 103 are not truly symmetrical but they obviously belong to this group. There is one known example in which the leather strap is attached directly to the bar and this may be normal for the type, as I have not seen one with a buckle-plate attached. The earliest circular buckle that I have evidence for is depicted on a Flemish brass of Ralph Knevyton in Avely Church, Essex and is there dated to 1370AD. Numbers 99-100 have faceted frames that are distinctive and easily recognised. Number 101 is the common form and these can be quite large. The frame section can be hemispherical or flat. Numbers 102-103 are the most decorative and are later in this group.

TYPE IIIC - 'figure-of-eight' double loop (no's 104-118). Date range 1350-1500AD+
There is little firm evidence of this type before the middle of the 14thc but gradually from this time onwards it becomes more common until in the late and post-Medieval period it is the dominant style. Number 104 is the earliest of the larger examples and is from a grave of c1361AD. Number 106 is dated 1400-1430AD and number 107 from 1450-1500AD. Numbers 105 and 108 are of the 15thc and the style of no.108 continued into the Tudor period. Of the smaller examples, numbers109 and 111 are probably the earliest and may be related to the single loop type with similar projections on the loop (see fig.5:5). Number 112 with its slightly pointed loop and hook attachment is from a spur of the period 1400-1450AD. Number 113 dates from 1450 onwards. Number 114 is a very common type of the 15thc with an often crudely made angular body and flat back. Number 115 is also a common form which had a long life. Numbers 116-118 are the classic 'figure-of-eight' shape that became common from the 15thc onwards.

Examples of TYPE IV have been included her for completeness as they are obviously for attachment to straps and belts. However, apart from one example they do not have a spiked tongue and are not therefore buckles in the strict sense of the word.

TYPE IVA - loop with internal points (no's 119-123). Date range 1250-1400AD.
This type is common on Medieval sites and dated examples seem to be from the mid-13thc onwards. No examples have been found with a tongue and so their exact function and purpose is uncertain. Possibilities are use as a type of clasp or indeed as a strap-slide.

TYPE IVB - loop with rotating closure (no's 124-127). Date range 1350-1500AD.
When found these are usually small in size but there are exceptions - one example I have seen was over three inches in length. Number 124 has a one-piece cast loop with forked spacers and soldered plates as in Type IG. It also has the two spurs on each side of the loop and the rotating closure has a rosette riveted to it. Number 125 has a similar loop but with a 'sandwich' buckle-plate and the closure has a plain boss riveted to it. Number 126 has a loop consisting of four pieces. The two sides are drilled through to take two pins - one for the buckle-plate and one for the rotating closure. Number 127 is similar but the loop is only drilled once to take the pin for the rotating closure.

TYPE IVC - loop with decorative knop (no's 128-130). Date range 1350-1400AD.
These are sometimes described as swivels and number 128 with its small projection on the bar almost certainly is. Number 129 from my own collection has a tongue and must therefore have been used as, or adapted to be used as, a buckle. Number 130 is also similar but has the two little spurs on the outside of the loop as noted on other buckles of the Medieval period.

TYPE IVD - large loop with two internal projections (no.131) Date range ?late-Medieval.
Examples of this type have come from Lydford Castle, Devon and one in my own collection from a Lincolnshire DMV. Another was pictured in Detector User magazine (June 1984; page 33). These may have been used as a loose belt fitting as described in Type IM, as a clasp, or as a belt-slide.

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