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https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/templates/general_wide/img/logo.png UKDFD Recording Software https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/ Paleolithic to Neolithic https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic.html Bladelet https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/bladelet-55869.html Mon, 08 Mar 2021 12:09:12 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Bladelet  
Description: A microlithic bladelet of the Mesolithic-Neolithic period. A tertiary mottled brown/black flake struck from a core. The flake is truncated at the proximal end, pointed at the distal end, there are two ridges on the dorsal surface, and the bulb of percussion is visible on the ventral surface. This would be equally useful as a cutting or boring tool.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Neolithic Arrowhead https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/neolithic-arrowhead-14417.html Sun, 27 Jul 2008 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Neolithic Arrowhead  
Description: A small lanceolate projectile of grey/tan flint, probably dating to the early Neolithic period.

Lanceolate in plan, with a plano-convex section. On a tertiary flake, this find exhibits skillfull retouch along the margins. This takes the form of semi-parallel, invasive (pressure) retouch, applied via a retoucheur of antler/bone. The lithic reduction involved in producing similar arrowheads is complex. It requires a great deal of strength and manual dexterity. The knapper must also possess an intuitive knowledge of the nature of the raw-material and how it can be quickly and efficiently reduced.

This leaf-shaped arrowhead has been bifacially worked. Projectiles of this type often exhibit some remaining ventral (flake-strike) surface on one of the faces. It's size is typical of the period. The 'sharp' point of this projectile is probably the tang, which facilitated secure and simple hafting. As such, I suspect that what appears to be the 'base' of this arrowhead may in fact prove to be the point, but has been subsequently damaged - perhaps through impact.

Despite its diminutive size, even quite substantial prey could be successfully engaged using projectiles of this type. They were successfully used in increasing number from the end of the Mesolithic period. Combined with varied and honed hunting skills, they were efficient killers. Leaf-shaped projectiles found in the UK are generally accepted to pre-date the tanged-and-barbed arrowheads of the later Neolithic/Chalcolithic/EBA. Their replacement was almost certainly the result of the import and acceptance of tanged-and-barbed technology, often attributed to 'Beaker People'. Whether this was the result of increased contact with Beaker culture (perhaps through trade), or the result of actual settlement of our shores in (increasing) number remains unclear.

Lanceolate arrowheads fell out of favour after the arrival of tanged and barbed technology to our shores. Elsewhere on the globe, they not only survived, but flourished. They were developed, refined and widely used long after the gradual introduction of bronze, sometime after 11,000 BCE.

Fresh-looking, with little opaque patination. No cortical residue apparent.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Neolithic Polished Axe https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/neolithic-polished-axe-16829.html Mon, 12 Jan 2009 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Neolithic Polished Axe  
Description: The substantial portion of a Neolithic polished axe. The material is interesting and appears to be bi-colour flint, pale, but with obvious inclusions. When newly polished, this would have been a work of immense pride to the polisher. It may have failed in use and may also exhibit end-shock. The flint may have failed first along a fault developed by the inclusions within the rock. The chisel-like working margin also appears to have sustained antique damage. Some even wear and patination/iron staining.

Ground and polished axes are associated with the onset of the Neolithic period - around 4000 BCE. They are certainly a technological improvement on the chipped axe and are just about as indestructible as a stone axe can be. Having said that, the act of polishing out the facets was incredibly hard work - and very time-consuming. As such, polished axes would have been treated as highly-prized objects. But although they were highly efficient tools, there are other factors that made them incredibly important to the Neolithic psyche.

These tools are the personification of man extending his influence over his environment. Man took the rock, shaped it, may have polished it for many hours and then used it to cut down trees. It enabled Neolithic settlers to descend from the downs and to clear and settle the fertile river valleys which were often areas of dense and widespread forest; a largely hostile and unknown environment.

The symbol of the axe was therefore highly important and it is not by coincidence that they were deposited votively - sometimes in groups or singly. Neolithic settlers may have seen this as paying homage to mother nature by returning some of their most precious objects back to the earth in the hope of good fortune in the future. Neolithic settlers were sometimes buried with similar finds - perhaps to accompany those honoured into the next life.

Tribes may have routinely traded fine axes, or partially complete axes (blanks) of fine or unusual materials over great distances. The breathtakingly beautiful jadeite axes found in ritual deposits throughout Britain came from jadeite sources in the Alps and Langdale axes/downs flint have been found throughout the British Isles and far beyond - even to the shores of the mediterranean.

The Symbology of the axe has endured beyond the new Stone Age, into the Bronze Age and far beyond. It continued to figure highly in many more recent cultures - the Vikings, Saxons etc etc and continues to feature in contemporary modern culture - amoung the Maori of New Zealand, for example.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Arrowhead https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/arrowhead-39741.html Sun, 25 Nov 2012 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Arrowhead  
Description: A tanged and barbed Conygar type flint arrowhead of the late Neolithic/early Bronze Age period.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Lithic Projectile https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/lithic-projectile-19987.html Sun, 19 Jul 2009 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Lithic Projectile  
Description: The finder comments....."This is a piece of elaborately flaked flint. Unfortunately damaged by the plough but judging from the side angles and projecting them forward and back it would have measured about 50mm in length when complete. It could well have been kite shaped instead of leafed variety. It dates to the early Neolithic and this style of flaking is thought to have been centred around Rudston."

A tertiary blade fragment/reduced tertiary flake.

Sub-rectangular in plan, with a bifacial and lenticular section, this fragmentary artefact is a product of pressure-flaking technology.

The skilful employment of precision pressure flaking is not often readily associated with UK tools until the Bronze Age - and/or the further incorporation of other alien culture/technologies. Much akin to that associated with the onset of Beaker people.

Despite the obvious appeal of copper, (its principal alloys) and the new & exclusive possibilities it offered, siliceous materials were exploited/knapped for at least a further 2,000 years. Stone had suddenly and literally become metal - and the Old Order was about to change. But stone continued to be exploited for all that - and for very sound reasons.

The find illustrated could represent any number of cultures from the Stone Ages and later - similar finds from the site should be sought.

No cortical residue.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Lithic Implement https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/lithic-implement-25253.html Mon, 10 May 2010 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Lithic Implement  
Description: A sub-triangular light grey flint flake, probably debitage. There are three vertical scars on the dorsal surface and a pronounced bulb-of-percussion at the proximal end of the ventral surface.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Flint Laurel Leaf https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/flint-laurel-leaf-35633.html Tue, 17 Jan 2012 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Flint Laurel Leaf  
Description: A flint 'laurel leaf' implement on a grey-brown flake. The function of 'laurel leaves' is uncertain, the use as spear heads or projectile points has been discounted. It has been suggested that they were hafted and used as a knife.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Mace https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/mace-42812.html Wed, 18 Sep 2013 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Mace  
Description: An oval mace head manufactured from a sandstone cobble. It has a central aperture which has been drilled from both sides, the edges of the aperture are chamfered, tapering inwards towards the centre, creating a funnel-like appearance.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Flint Arrowhead https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/flint-arrowhead-42821.html Thu, 19 Sep 2013 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Flint Arrowhead  
Description: A Green Low Type barbed and tanged arrowhead of the Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age, with rounded tang and barbs and evidence of retouch along the outer edges.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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Tranchet Preform Adze https://www.ukdfd.co.uk/v46/artefact/paleolithic-to-neolithic/tranchet-preform-adze-45392.html Sun, 06 Jul 2014 00:00:00 GMT Paleolithic to Neolithic Tranchet Preform Adze  
Description: A Mesolithic Preform adze of brown/black flint. Negative flaking scars on both faces. Bulb of percussion has been removed during the stage of roughout into preform, before being used as an axe.
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
Category: Paleolithic to Neolithic
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